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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f8\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f10\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f12\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f14\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f9\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl1375\margr1933\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn4669\margrsxn3859\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw720\colsr1242\colno2\colw1750 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb108\sa0 \f9\fs20{\b\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs14 224}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 KANISKA'S DATE}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn1375\margrsxn1933\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60  \pard\plain \sb216\sa0\fs2\par\sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn1375\margrsxn1933\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw720\colsr2563\colno2\colw5648 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb9551\sa0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs18 1.'}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li7\fi0\ri11\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 es. Though the possibility of a brief gap between the \expndtw4 two sovereigns cannot be entirely ruled out, their se\-\expndtw6 quence may be regarded as almost certain.\super 1\nosupersub  The coins \expndtw2 of both Kaniska and Vima Kadphises have been found \expndtw10 together at several places (e.g., Benares, Gopalpur \i\expndtw5 Stupa \i0 in Gorakhpur district, Begram near Kabul), and \expndtw2 they often display "in the field the same four-pronged \expndtw3 symbol, and agree accurately in weight and fineness, \expndtw1 besides exhibiting a close relationship in the obverse de\-\expndtw3 vices."\super 2\nosupersub  Thus the numismatic evidence and the .strati\-\expndtw4 fication of the remains of Taxila indicate that Kaniska \expndtw3 was very close in time to Vima Kadphises, and indeed \expndtw1 succeeded him. With regard to the precise year of the \expndtw-1 former's accession, the choice really lies between 78 A.D., \expndtw2 and 125 A.D., although other improbable dates, ranging \expndtw3 from 58 B.C. (Fleet) to 248 A.D. (Dr. R.C. Majumdar), \expndtw1 or even 278 A.D. (R.G. Bhandarkar), have been suggest\-\expndtw5 ed for the event. Without entering here into the details \expndtw2 of these intricate and interminable controversies, it ap\-\expndtw1 pears to us a fairly plausible theory that Kaniska was the \expndtw4 the originator of the era of 78 A.D.\super 3\nosupersub  There can be no \expndtw3 doubt that he founded an era, since his reckoning was \expndtw2 continued by his successors; and we do not know of any \i\expndtw5 Samvat, \i0 current in Northern India, which began at the \expndtw3 end of the first quarter of the second century A.D., the \expndtw12 other date usually proposed for Kaniska's assump\-\expndtw3 tion of the crown.\super 4\nosupersub  Besides, if Kujula Kadphises died \expndtw4 about the middle of the third quarter of the first century}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi389\ri0\sb335\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx511 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw4 Fleet, however, was of opinion that the two Kadphises ruled\line \expndtw7 after Kaniska and his "immediate successors"  \i (J.R.A.S.,   \i0 1903,\line \expndtw6 1905, 1906, 1913).    This view was also   held by  Kennedy and\line \expndtw8 Otto Francke.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li389\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx511 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw9 JB.H.L, 4th ed., p. 273 and note.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi389\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx511 \f9\fs20{\b0\i\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 3{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\i0\nosupersub\expndtw1 The era was afterwards called the Saka era "in consequence of\line \expndtw6 its long use by the 3aka princes of Western India."}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi389\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx511 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 4{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw8 For a discussion on Kaniska's   date, see \i J.R.A.S.,    \i0 1913,\line \expndtw3 1914.   Also \i Ind. Hist. Quart., \i0 Vol. V (1929), pp. 49-80.}\par }